The essay "Earthquakes "for B.A students of Punjab University

In this article, I have given the essay earthquakes for the students of F.A. and B.A. of Punjab University. This is one of the most important essays for B.Students. I have also given outlines that are required for B.A. students in the examination.

The Essay Earthquakes 


1. Natural calamitieses

2. Introduction to earthquakes

3. Background and history of earthquakes

4. The scientific process of earthquakes

5. Methods to measure earthquakes

6. precautionary measures

7. destruction caused by earthquakes

8. Recent earthquakes

9. conclusion

In the past, Natural calamities like floods, droughts, famines, storms, rains, and earthquakes were considered the annoyance of gods who become furious when their orders were violated. But in this scientific age, it is believed that our home, the earth is in cruel grips of domination blind forces and it is these blind forces which, in accordance with certain rules and regulations, are always in practice to damage the beauty and solidity of our planet.

Earthquake is, no doubt, one of these blind forces before which man, who feels proud of being called a scientifically developed creature, is helpless though he has controlled many of the natural calamities. Earthquakes are heavenly catastrophic and, approximately, 10 laces earthquakes take place in a year the world over. But it is fortunate that a considerable number of them, with it, causing any loss of property and life, occur and pass away quietly.

Though some of them were pretty serious and calm thousands of lives and material loss on a large scale. Luckily, the most dangerous earthquakes take place in the occurs as near them but those, which occur otherwise, cause untold havoc and ruination. Such earthquakes may happen everywhere in the world at any time twice a week. The areas where earthquakes repeatedly occur are the regions between the mediterranean sea and the Atlantic sea, the Middle East, America India China, Japan, Turkey, etc. But the highest causalities, ever recorded during earthquakes, are reported to have been there in china.

The history of earthquakes is as old as the history of mankind and man has been falling prey to them since time immemorial. They say that two oxen are holding the earth, when; one is tried and shifts the load of the earth to the other in order to take rest, the earthquake takes place. Others say that a bull is holding the earth on one of its horns; when it feels tired, it transfers the earth to the other horn. As a result, the earth is shaken and an earthquake occurs.

Scientifically speaking, our earth consists of almost three main layers and igneous rocks which to on sliding gradually but so pensively that we are unable to observe their movement the inner temperature of the earth, at various depths, varies from one place to the other. So far as the central part of the earth is concerned, it is extremely hot; this molten metal which is called lava shakes the earth; and this is how earthquakes occur.

The intensity of earthquakes is recorded on the earthquake measuring instrument called Richter Scale. This intensity of earthquakes is actually the energy and power which our earth emits during the disturbance of volcanoes and under-surface changes.

The devastation caused by earthquakes is perhaps the greatest of all the losses brought about by natural calamities the whole city is to the ground in the twinkling of an eye. Countless people bite the dust; the economy is reduced to the hyphen. and the fair countenance of life is blighted by the last of severe destruction. Horror and fear arise from the pitiable state of suffering humanity which makes our hearts bleed and tough to apply the balm of sympathy to soothe the sorrow of survivors.

There have been such earthquakes in history as converted hectic and attractive cities into silent and formidable cemeteries. In 1923, an earthquake claimed the lives of almost two lac persons in japan. In 1930 an earthquake devoured almost two lac human beings., 40 thousand people were killed by a cataclysmic earthquake in Quetta, and the formidable earthquakes in turkey in 1983 were also serious and dangerous in intensity and claimed hundreds of thousands of people.

If we want to see the destruction caused by earthquakes, we can see it in India. The earthquake which occurred in Gujrat in India in January this last year was one of the most dangerous earthquakes of the world. Round one lac people were reported to have been killed and other thousands were injured and become homeless. Pakistan sent two airplanes full of goods. food supplies etc for the help of victims ignoring all regional and political rights and conflicts. other countries also extended their best possible aid for the relief of the victims and they are seen to be nothing as compared with the magnitude of the havoc.

Sens of security has urged man to devise and adopt some precautionary measures in order to minimize the life-consuming effects of earthquakes. First of all, in those areas where earthquakes repeatedly occur, the erection of buildings consisting of many strokes should be avoided and the wooden house should be constructed. The design of the buildings should be such as can be saved from earthquakes. What is ore and common for one is indoors, one should, immediately, try to come out in the open and, if not possible, then one should seek shelter under the strongest part of the building. Stairs and pillars on top of all, one should not be lost senses during the shocks of earthquakes and prepare oneself for any emergency.

Earthquakes are, in fact, a heavenly warning to mankind. When nature finds corruption and evil in the world, it punishes the people to remind others and survivors of the world. Therefore, man should set his affairs right. If there is nothing wrong, catastrophe or disaster can occur. Let us analyze our lives and pray to God to save us from all the heavenly and earthly turmoils.

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