Comprehensive study of Parts of Speech in English Language

In this article, I have discussed all parts of speech in detail. This article is about the detailed study of parts of speech in the English language. I have given the definitions of all parts of speech in simple words and I have tried to discuss in detail all parts of speech in a single article. This article is a comprehensive study of all parts of speech. I have discussed the nouns, pronouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, conjunctions, prepositions, interjections, and article in detail with examples




Parts of speech

Definition

Division of words into different kinds or classes according to their use, the work they do in a sentence is known as Parts of Speech. They are as enumerated. 

1. NOUN

A noun is a word that denotes a person, place, thing idea, living creature, quality, or action. Examples of the cowboy, theatre, thought, tree, kindness, arrival, etc. 

A Test for Noun


The noun may be broadly classified as follows: 

Common Noun

A common noun refers to a common person place or thing. Examples: boy, city shop tree, etc. Common nouns can be shared by all. 

Proper Noun

Proper nouns refer to particular persons, places, or things Examples: God, Ahmad, Lahore Holy Quran, etc. Proper nouns are always capitalized. 

Collective Nouns

Collective Nouns refer to a number, or a set of persons, things, or animals regarded as a single group of the same kind. Examples: Crowd, team, class, army, committee, swarm, etc. Being countable they may be singular or plural. 

Material Nouns or Mass Nouns

Material Nouns refer to substances liquid or solid that are not normally divisible. Examples: Milk, Butter, Sugar, Iron, Glass, Wood, gold, etc. Material nouns are mostly uncountable. 

Concrete Nouns

Concrete Nuns refer to objects and substances that exist in a physical sense that can be seen heard, tasted smelled, or felt by the body. Examples: bird, house, apple, child, etc. 

Abstract Nouns

Abstract Nouns refer to the name of special quality, action, emotion, or condition n. Examples: freedom, progress, information, democracy, tennis, philosophy, wisdom, etc. They can be both countable and material.

Count and Non-count Nouns

Count nouns refer to countable things. They have two forms singular or plural. The singular noun refers to one person or thing. It always takes an article with it. Plural form refers to two or more than two persons or things. It can be used with or without an article. It does not take an article when it refers to a person or things in general. Examples: a ticket, two tickets, etc. 

Non-count Nouns

Non-count nouns refer to uncountable things; Often they are things in liquid or mass form or abstract ideas. They have only one form. Examples: Milk, music, furniture, anger, etc. 

2. PRONOUN

A Pronoun is used in the place of a noun, in order to avoid a noun again and again. Examples: He, She, It, We, They, etc.
The pronoun may be broadly classified as follow: 

Personal Pronoun

Personal pronouns stand for one of the three persons
i) The person speaking
ii) The person spoken to
iii) The person spoken of
Examples: I remember her helping us with our problems, not yours. 

Relative Pronoun

Relative Pronouns refer to a word that works like conjunction as well as a pronoun. They are five in numbers: Who, Whom Whose Which, That, Examples: The man who lives next-door borrowed the book that you lent me. 

Indefinite Pronoun

Indefinite pronouns refer to person or persons, things, or things in a general way and not to any person or thing particular. They are somebody, someone, anyone, many, nobody, a few one, etc. Example: Nobody comes to a party. 

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are used to pointing things and persons.  This, That, These, Those. Example: Those are my favorite, but these are good too. 

Distributive pronoun

The distributive pronoun refers to persons or things singly or in separate groups. They are Neither, One, Either, Each, And Everyone, etc. Example: No one was present. 

Reciprocal Pronouns

Reciprocal Pronouns refer to persons or things singly or in separate groups. These two in numbers Each other and one another are called reciprocal pronouns in the English language. 

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive Pronouns are used when the action done by the subject turns back upon the subject Examples: Myself, yourself, himself, etc. 

Interrogative Pronoun

Interrogative Pronouns are used to ask questions. They are five in number. Who, Whom, Whose, Which, What, Example: Who said so? 

3. VERB

A verb is a word that describes an action (doing) something ) or a state (being something) Examples: walk, talk thing, believe, live like want, etc. 

A test for verbs

We can recognize a verb by asking that we have or not, “Can I do it or not.We can use I can succeed but we can not use I can success . This means succeed is a verb and success isn’t. 

Types of verb

The verb is classified as follows: 

1. Main Verb

The main verb refers to the verb which is used as the basis for the main clause in a sentence. Examples: eat drink, sleep study, etc. It is of three types: 

i) Transitive Verb

The transitive verb that can have an object Examples: eat, drink, drive, etc. 

ii) Intransitive Verb

The intransitive verb cannot has an object, or be used in the passive. Examples: smile, fall, come, go, etc. 

iii) Linking verb

A linking verb takes a compliment rather than an object. They usually describe a state or condition, Examples: be, seem, appear, feel, look, stay, smell, sound, taste, grow, fall, run, turn, get become, keep, prove, go, remain a lie, resemble, etc. 

2.  Auxiliary or Helping Verb

Auxiliary verbs are used with another verb to make tenses, passive forms, etc. Examples: do be, have, etc. 

3.      Modal Verbs

Modal verbs are helping verbs that are followed by a verb in the base form. Examples: Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Shall, Will, Should, Would, Ought to, used to, etc. 

Regular and Irregular verbs:

Main verbs are either regular or irregular. Regular verbs take – ed or –d with a present form to make past and past participle. Examples: talk, look move, charge, etc. Whereas irregular verbs do not take – ed or –d form with the present to make past and past participle. Sometimes the verb changes completely, sometimes there is a half change and sometimes there is no change at all examples: Sing, Sang, Sung, Build, Built, Built, Put, Put, Put. Etc. 

4. ADJECTIVE 

An Adjective is a word that describes anon or pronoun. It tells something about them Examples: big, yellow, thin, amazing, beautiful, quick, important, etc.
 

A test for Adjectives 

A good method to check an adjective when a word is in doubt is, we can apply a test that it is modifying a noun or not.  what kind of noun is it? He is a successful businessman is correct because successful answers what kind of businessman is he? He is a successful businessman is incorrect as successfully answers “How” and not “What kind of” This means successful is an adjective and successfully isn’t. 

Types of Adjectives 

An adjective may be broadly classified as follows: 

1) Adjectives of Quality 

Adjectives of quality attribute some quality to a person or thing. Examples: diry hot, large, rich, etc. They answer of what kink? 

2) Adjectives of Quantity 

Adjectives of quantity show the number of things. Examples: enough, little, some, many, etc. They answer How Much? 

3. Demonstrative Adjective 

Demonstrative Adjectives are used to point to persons and things.. Examples: This, that, these, those. They answer which? 

4. Interrogative Adjectives 

Interrogative Adjectives are used with nouns to ask question Examples: what, which, whose. They are only three. 

5. Possessive Adjectives 

Possessive Adjectives refer to the possessive case of pronouns which works as a possessive adjective. Examples: my, your, her, their, etc. 

6. Numeral Adjectives 

Numeral Adjectives refer to how many persons or things are meant or in what order persons or things stand. Examples: one ten first, second, etc. They are of two types. 

i. Definite Numeral Adjectives 

Definite numeral adjectives denote an exact number. Examples: one, two, first second, etc. They are ordinals and cardinals. 

Ordinals 

Ordinals denote how many, as one,k two three, etc. 

Cardinals 

Cardinals denote the order of things in series, as: first, second third. Etc. 
Indefinite Numeral Adjectives 
Indefinite numeral Adjectives do not refer to an exact number. Examples: all, many few, some certain, several, etc. 

5. ADVERB

An adverb is a word that describes a verb an adjective and another adverb. It tells how something is done, and when or where something happened. Examples: Quickly, beautifully, good, last day, tomorrow, here everywhere, etc. it is used with a verb, adjective, and another adverb. 

Types of Adverb 

An adverb may be broadly classified as follows: 

1. Simple Adverbs 

Simple adverbs may be divided into 8 subtypes 

I. Adverb of Manner 

Adverbs of Manner describe sate, quality, and state of things. These adverbs show ho or I what manner. Examples: slowly, badly, will, certainly, easily, politely, loudly, etc. 

II. Adverbs of place 

Adverbs of place show where: Examples: here there, aside, backward, above out everywhere, etc. 

III. Adverbs of time 

Adverb of time show when. Examples: lately, yesterday, seldom, etc. They are of three types: 
a) Which expresses a definite time period. Examples: yesterday, now last year, today etc. 
b) Which express duration, length of time: Examples: lately, since, always, temporarily, etc. 
c) Which express frequency; They answer how often an action takes place: They are of two types: 
Definite: Examples: everyday weekly, monthly, and twice, etc. 
Indefinite: Examples: seldom, never usually always, normally, etc. 

IV Adverb of reasons or cause 

Adverbs of reason or cause Examples: why what, how, etc. 

V. Adverbs of consequence / Effect / Result 

Adverbs of consequence or effect or result Examples: likewise, therefore. Hence, etc. 

VI. Adverb of Degree/ Quantity 

Adverbs of degree/ quantity show how much, or what degree or to what extent: Examples: almost, also, little, much, too, very partly, etc. 

VII. Adverbs of affirmation & Negation 

Adverbs of affirmation & negation show Yes, no, not, nay, aye, etc. 

VIII. Adverbs of number 

Adverbs of number show number or grade. Examples: twice, firstly, etc. 

2. Relative Adverbs 

Relative or conjunctive adverbs work as conjunctions in the sentences: Examples: as, how, then, while, when, where, therefore, nevertheless, etc. 

3. Interrogative Adverbs 

Interrogative adverbs fare used to ask questions: Examples: how, when, how many, where, how long, how for, etc. 

6. CONJUNCTION 

A conjunction is a word that connects two words, two nouns, two phrases, and , two clauses. ; Examples: but, so, and, because, or, etc. 
Types of conjunction 
Conjunctions may be broadly classified as follows:

1. Coordinating Conjunction 

 Coordinating Conjunctions join words, phrases, clauses, or sentences of equal rank to make up one sentence; Examples: for, and nor, but, or, yet, so, etc.( FANBOYS) 

2. Subordination Conjunction

 Subordinating Conjunctions join subordinate clauses to each other or to the main clause: Examples: that because, since, while, after, if, although, whether what, wherever, etc. 

7. INTERJECTION 

An interjection is an unusual kind of word that stands alone. Interjections are words that express sudden emotion, sudden surprise. : Examples: Ouch! Hello! Hurrah! Oh no! Ha! Etc. 
They can express such emotions: surprise (Oh) great surprise (Wow) satisfaction (Ah), great satisfaction ( Aha), excitement/ delight (Yippee), pain (Ouch), disgust (Ugh), pleasure, pain (Ooh), exhaustion (Phew). 

8. PREPOSITION 

A word describes a relationship between nouns. ; Examples: at, of, from, to, with, in, for, etc. . : 
Types of Preposition 
Prepositions may be broadly classified as follows: 

1. Simple prepositions. 

Simple prepositions : Examples: at by, for, from, in, out, till, etc.
 

2. Compound prepositions 

Compound prepositions are a group of words used with the force of a single preposition. Examples: about along, between, inside, etc. 
Prepositions can express the relation of place, time, agency and instrumentality, manner, cause reason purpose, measure standard rate value, contrast concession, enforce, motive source origin, possession.

You can also read

Post a Comment

Post a Comment (0)

Previous Post Next Post