The basic structure of sentence and its types.


Sentence and its structure

sentence and its structure.


A group of words that makes complete sense; has a Subject and a predicate; start with capital letters and end with a full stop is called a sentence. For example, Ali sat in a corner.

In this sentence, we find that the sentence is started with the capital letter A and ended with a full stop.
It has a subject which is Ali and a predicate that is sat in a corner. This sentence fulfills all the requirement which is necessary for a sentence.


A) Assertive sentence

A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called assertive or declarative sentence.
 Ali sat on the wall.

A) Affirmative sentence

A sentence that affirms a statement is called an affirmative sentence.
 He is a good boy.

B) Negative sentence

A sentence that negates a statement is called the negative sentence
 He is not a good boy.


A sentence that is used to ask a question is called an interrogative sentence.


 Did he go to school?
Interrogative sentences are two types one is close and the second is an open question
Closed questions give the answer only in yes or no but the open question has different options of answers you can give any answer in an open question, for example, why are you studying? In this question, you have options for different answers.


 Are you going to school?
Why are you going to school?
In these two examples, we find that in the first question the answer is Yes or no but in the second question, we have different options we say that I am going to school to study. In the second question, we have different options to answer.


A sentence that expresses a command, request, suggestion, and proposal is called an imperative sentence. 

  •  Open your books. (Command)
  •  Please give me a glass of water. (Request)
  •  Always speaks the truth. (Advice)
  •  Let us play together. (Proposal)
Imperative sentences are four different types in which we can express order, request, Advice, and proposal. Etc


A sentence that expresses strong feelings of emotion is called an exclamatory sentence. An exclamatory mark is used in exclamatory sentences.

  • What a  short it is!
  • Hurrah! I have won the medal.
  • What a beautiful flower it is!
  • Alas! I have ruined it.


A sentence that expresses pray and curses is called an optative sentence.

  •  May you live long. 
  • May you go to hell.


In order to understand the sentence, we have to understand the structure of the sentence. How a sentence is made what are its components.

There are three kinds of sentence structural vise they are following.

1 Simple sentence

A sentence that has one subject and one predicate is called a simple sentence. A simple sentence has only one clause.


  •  Ali is an honest man.
  • I am going to school.
  • You are a lazy boy.


A compound sentence has more than one clause these clauses should be independent clauses or coordinating clauses.
 For example
When a sentence has more than one clause and we want to check that this sentence is a compound sentence or complex. we have to study and check clauses.

  •  He is poor but he is an honest man.
  • He is hardworking and You are a dull student.


A complex sentence has more than one clause but at one or more independent and one or more dependent clauses. For example, He came to see me when I was reading a book.


A group of words, that give us some senses but not complete the sense is called a phrase.
Kinds of phrase

1 Noun phrase

In the noun, phrase noun is compulsory as a head noun and follows two pre- head dependents determiners and modifiers and three types of post- head dependents compliments, modifiers, and peripheral dependent. Dr-M-H-C-M-PH
Deteriminal – modifiers-Head noun- compliment-modifiers-peripheral

2 verb phrase

The main verb functions as the main head noun in the verb phrase and auxiliaries function as their dependents.
Main verb         +       Auxiliaries

  • Has been going
In this verb phrase has is auxiliary been is another auxiliary and going is main head so a verb phrase consisting one or more than one auxiliary and one main head lexical verb which is called the main verb.

3 Adjective phrases

An adjective phrase has a simple structure an adjective as head noun and an adverb as modifiers.

  • Very naughty
  • Half black
In this Adjective phrase very is a modifier which is an adverb and naughty is the main head which is an adjective.

4 Adverb phrase

The adverb phrase has a simple structure. An adverb phrase adverb functions as the main head and another adverb as modifiers.

  • Very slowly
  • very fastly.
In this adverb phrase, both are adverbs slowly is the main head and very are modifiers. An adverb phrase is consisting of two adverbs one functions as the main head and the second functions as modifiers.

5 prepositional phrases

Prepositional phrases are consisting of a preposition and a noun phrase.

  • On the table
  • On the road
On is the preposition and the table is a noun phrase. In the second phrase On is the main head and the road is a noun phrase. we know that a noun phrase consists of an article and a noun.


A group of words that has a subject and a predicate is called a clause.

 For example,

  •  He came to see me when I was playing cricket
  • I was watching TV when you called me.

Kinds of clauses

There are two types of clauses subordinate clause and coordinate clause.

1 Coordinate clause

A clause that gives complete sense and can stand by itself is called a coordinate clause.

  • Ali is poor but he is an honest man 
This sentence has two clauses and both are independent clauses because both can stand by themselves and not be dependent on each other.

2 subordinate clause

A clause that cannot stand by itself is called a subordinate clause. A subordinate clause needs a coordinate clause to clarify the meaning in a sentence.

  • I was playing when he called me.

In this sentence I was playing is a coordinate clause and when he calls me is a subordinate.
Subordinate clauses have the following kinds.

1 Noun clause

A group of words that contains a subject and predicate of its own and does the work of a noun.

  • I fear that I shall fail.

2 Adjective clauses

An adjective clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate of its own and does the work of an adjective.

  • I know the book that you give me.
  • Ali is a man who is honest.

3 Adverb clauses

An adverb clause is the group of words that contain its own subject and predicate and does the work of an adverb.

  • If he eats too much he will be ill.
If we want to understand what is the sentence we have to understand the building structure of the sentence. The element of the sentence are words, phrases, and clauses if we want to understand a sentence we have to understand its components.

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