Direct and Indirect sentences of Universal truth with examples and exercise

 In this article, I have explained the direct & Indirect sentences with universal truth with examples and exercises. I have also given the rules of the direct & Indirect sentences with universal truth. I have also explained the changes in pronouns of the sentences with universal truth.

What is universal Truth?

If the sentence expresses a general truth that remains the same everywhere in the world. If the sentences describe an accepted fact that is not changeable. The sentence that expresses general truth and accepted facts that remain the same in the world and never change is called universal truth. the sentences with universal truth are easy to convert into indirect speech because we need not change the tense of reported speech. We can use "That" as a conjunction instead of inverted commas and the pronoun of reported speech is changed according to the rules.

Rules of Direct & Indirect Sentences with universal truth

1. Reported speech never changed
2. The conjunction "That" is used instead of inverted commas
3. Told or tell is used instead of Said. (If the object is given in reported speech)
4. If the sentence is an interrogative, "If" or "whether" is used instead of inverted commas
5. If the sentence is an interrogative, asked is used instead of Said.
6. Pronouns of reporting speech are changed according to rules.

Important Changes 

Reporting speech                             Reporting speech

1. Say / Will Say/ said  ---------------      Remain Same ( If there is no object in" Reporting speech")
2. Say/Will say--------------------------   Tell/Tells   (If the object is given in"( Reporting speech")
3. Said            -----------------------------  Told ( If there is an object is given in "(Reporting speech")

Change of pronouns

First of all, we need to know about the kinds of persons in order to understand direct and indirect speech.

1st Person

Subjective       Possessive        Objective
[  I   ]                    [  My  ]                  [  Me]
[We]                      [ Our  ]                  [  Us]

2nd Person

Subjective          Possessive          Objective
 ] You  ]                   [Your]                   [ You]

3rd Person

Subjective           Possessive         Objective
[ He ]                    [  His  ]                  [ Him]
[ She ]                    [ Her ]                   [  Her]
[ They ]                   [Their ]                [  Them]
[ It   ]                      [Its ]                      [ It]

Change of Persons

  • 1st person of reported speech is changed according to the subject of reporting speech
  • 2nd person of reported speech is changed according to the object of reporting speech.
  • 3rd person of the reported speech never changed.

In order to understand we can explain this point in this way.

Reported Speech            Reporting Speech

1st Person        ---------------          Subject

2nd Person      ---------------         Object

3rd Person       ----------------        Never changed

In order to remember we can remember this formula of changing pronouns.

Reporting Speech     Reported Speech

SON                          "  123 "

1---      Stand for 1st Person of Reported speech
2----    Stand for the Second Person of the Reported speech
3----    Stand for 3rd person of the Reported speech
S----    Stand for Subject of Reporting Speech
O---    Stand for Object of Reporting Speech
N---    Stand for Never of Reporting speech
If we explain this formula we can say that
  • 1st person of Reported speech changed according to Subject of Reporting Speech
  • 2nd person of the Reported speech changed according to the Object of Reporting Speech
  • 3rd Person of Reported never changed.


1. Our teacher said," Tow and tow make four."(Direct)
   Our teacher said that two and two make four. (Indirect)
2. My father said, "The Earth is round."(Direct)
    My father said that the earth is round. (Indirect)
3. she said," Honesty is the best policy."(Direct)
    She said that honesty is the best policy. (Indirect)
4. I will say to him," Man is mortal."(Direct)
    I will tell him that man is mortal. (Indirect)
5. They said," God is one."(Direct)
    They said that God is one. (Indirect)
6. He said," Village men are simple."(Direct)
    He said that village men are simple. (Indirect)
7. They said," A month has 30 days."(Direct)
    He said that a month has 30 days. (Indirect)

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